Evosci.org - Evolving Science and Engineering


2) Sending Classical Data down a Quantum Channel

We are investigating, theoretically and with some practical experimentation, a project sending classical data down a quantum channel. Another interesting fact about this scheme is counterfactual communication11,12 - information is sent without directly mmodulating the photon stream but by measuring or not the wavefunction, which causes the presence or absence of interference effects where the photon is received.

Here is a poster explaining the well-known  experimental  and theoretical concepts behind this project, in a nutshell. For those worried about Relativity, look here. There is a one-photon setup and a two-photon setup which is analogous.

The central experimental tenants of this thesis have already been proven: that remote, non-local measurement does change distant wave-function collapse1,2 and that the speed of this collapse by coincidence counting3 was at least 10,000c. What remained was to show that the "No-communication theorem"4 could be violated5 and that a protocol could be devised to overcome the randomness of quantum measurement. The phenomenon of entanglement is quite robust too, persisting6 over many 10s of km. Thermal interaction ultimately disrupts entanglement as the particles take on random entanglement with the environment thermal bath7

Before naysayers come and say "No-communications theorem", we've tackled that head-on (see proofs and "the misuse..." papers below). In short the NCT is wrong because one needs to consider the joint-evolutions (NB. the operators only act on their respective systems) of the systems before the partial trace is taken, the trace is clearly space-like in operation and the creation operators can be mapped outside the interferometers (hence the causal delay in transiting the devices is irrelevant). All permissible within standard quantum mechanics and backed up by countless experiments.

We report an experiment8,9 by Chinese scientists working with counterfactual communication, which in essence is very similar to what we are doing.

New work: A paper is being prepared (it was meant to be completed in COVID-19 lockdown) which will explain how I think superluminal communication is possible, that is the mechanism behind it. I believe (now) that time is two-dimensional with imaginary time orthogonal to real time. There is a link between Wick Rotation, quantum statistics and thermodynamics which shows how measurement can be viewed as evolution in the imaginary time domain. I'll get on with it, it's in draft but I'm just bored.

Some people are confused by the concepts so here is an animation/slide-show video SHOW

         Bona-fides: 1 2 3   One of several publications and patents in the area: IE68

(If you don't like Facebook or Google, you can sign up with just an email and password to academia.edu and then block any adverts with a plugin or native ad-blocker in a browser. I have given alternative download locations (b,c) after the main link for the paper.)

Papers not listed chronologically.

Paper (b, c)  ("The misuse of the No-communication Theorem". This is another disproof of the NCT)

Paper (b)  (Disproof of the No-Communication Theorem by Decoherence Theory)

Paper (b, c(A Mechanism for the Effects of Relativity)

Paper (b, c (Secure Quantum Communication and Superluminal Signalling on the Bell Channel)


Paper (b) (Superluminal Signalling using Path Entanglement)

Paper (b) ("A means to make an Extremely Bright Entangled Source")  

Paper (b) ("Further proofs on the 1-photon entanglement communication scheme") 

Paper (b) ("The Impossibility of Large-scale Retrocausal Signalling")

Paper (b) (Retrocausality vs. Superluminal signalling)


Yes, conceptually, it's this simple as the diagram below. Experimental details are slightly involved though simple, profound things can suffer much disbelief and obstruction. The 'M' is the measurement, 'C' the constructive interference detector and 'D', the destructive

N.B. This only works with a single photon source NOT a coherent source. See note in image.

How a wavepacket/wavefront goes through the device (see VIDEO):

                           Unmeasured Case Zoomed In, Unmeasured Case Zoomed Out

                           Measured Case Zoomed In, Measured Case Zoomed Out

Older work on the same project

Paper 2 (arxiv.org

Paper 3 (vixra.org) (A Means to Purify an Entangled Source)

1. Dopfer, Birgit (1998). PhD Thesis. Univ. Innsbruck.

2. Zeilinger, Anton (1999). "Experiment and the foundations of quantum physics". Rev. Mod. Physics 71: 288-297.

3. Zbinden, H.; Gisin, N., et al, "Testing the speed of "spooky action at a distance". Nature, 2008. 454.

4. Hall, Michael J. W., "Imprecise Measurements and Non-Locality in Quantum Mechanics". Phys. Lett. A, 1987. 125(2,3): p. 89,91.

5. N.B. "No Communication Theorem" says nothing about the case when there is no particle (due to destructive interference) so it is entirely moot.

6. Universitat Wien, Quantum Optics, Quantum Information Group: "Entanglement based quantum communication over 144 km.

7. W.H. Zurek. "Decoherence and the Transition from Quantum to Classical". Los Alamos Science Number 27 2002.

8. 'Researchers achieve direct counterfactual quantum communication' https://phys.org/news/2017-05-counterfactual-quantum.html 

9. Yuan Caoa, Yu-Huai Lia, et al, 'Direct counterfactual communication via quantum Zeno effect', PNAS May 9th 2017, vol. 114 no. 19, p. 4920-4924.

10. Alonso Calafell et al. "Trace-free counterfactual communication with a nanophotonic processor" https://www.nature.com/articles/s41534-019-0179-2.pdf 23 July 2019.

11.  Will McCutcheon and John Rarity (Bristol). "Do the laws of physics prohibit counterfactual communication?" [1806.01257]) 14 Dec 2020.



Main Page